cyberbullying research center   "I have autism and have been made fun of for most my childhood. It hurts me so much when people pick on me and hardly ever think before they speak. They gossip and say whatever they want to without asking themselves if they will be rude to someone else by saying it. I have grown up quite a bit and wish they could understand, but they don't. My heart breaks from this pain inside me and they don't care at all." (17 year-old girl from WA)
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Our Cyberbullying Publications and Materials
Publications
Books, Book Chapters, Academic Journal Articles, and Research Summaries
Dr. Hinduja and Dr. Patchin continuously seek to contribute to the knowledgebase concerning cyberbullying and adolescent use and mis-use of technology. Below is a summary of many of the publications they have produced in recent years. If you have trouble accessing any of the information below, feel free to contact them and electronic copies of reprints of articles or fact sheets usually can be provided.

Books (click on any title to see details)

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2012). School Climate 2.0: Preventing Cyberbullying and Sexting One Classroom at a Time. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications (ISBN: 1412997836).

Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2012). Cyberbullying Prevention and Response: Expert Perspectives. New York: Routledge (ISBN: 978-0415892377).

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2009). Bullying beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications (ISBN: 978141296689)

Journal Articles (click on any title to see details)

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2013). Social Influences on Cyberbullying Behaviors Among Middle and High School Students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.

Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2011). Traditional and nontraditional bullying among youth: A test of general strain theory. Youth and Society, 43(2), 727-75

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2011). Cyberbullying: A review of the legal issues facing educators. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 55(2), 71-78.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2011). High-tech cruelty. Educational Leadership, 68(5), 48-52.

Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2010). Cyberbullying and self-esteem. Journal of School Health, 80(12), 614-621.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide. Archives of Suicide Research, 14(3), 206-221.

Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2010). Changes in adolescent online social networking behaviors from 2006 to 2009. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 1818-1821.

Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2010). Trends in online social networking: Youth use of MySpace over time. New Media & Society, 12(2), 197-216.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2008). Personal information of adolescents on the Internet: A quantitative content analysis of MySpace. Journal of Adolescence, 31(1), 125-146.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2008). Cyberbullying: An exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization. Deviant Behavior, 29(2), 129-156.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2007). Offline consequences of online victimization: School violence and delinquency. Journal of School Violence, 6(3), 89-112.

Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2006). Bullies move beyond the schoolyard: A preliminary look at cyberbullying. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 4(2), 123-147.

Chapters in Books (click on any title to see details)

Burgess-Proctor, A., Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2010). Cyberbullying and online harassment: Reconceptualizing the victimization of adolescent girls (p. 162-176). In V. Garcia and J. Clifford (Eds.). Female Crime Victims: Reality Reconsidered. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Fact Sheets and Research Summaries (click on any title to see details)

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2013). Social Influences on Cyberbullying Behaviors Among Middle and High School Students

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2011). Cyberbullying Fact Sheet: Cyberbullying and Sexual Orientation.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2011). Cyberbullying Fact Sheet: Electronic Dating Violence.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Cyberbullying Fact Sheet: Identification, Prevention, and Response.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Cyberbullying Research Summary: Cyberbullying and Self-Esteem.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Cyberbullying Research Summary: Cyberbullying and Strain.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Cyberbullying Research Summary: Cyberbullying and Suicide.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Sexting: A Brief Guide for Educators and Parents.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2012). State Cyberbullying Laws: A Brief Review of State Cyberbullying Laws and Policies.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Cyberbullying Research Summary: Changes in Adolescent Online Social Networking Behaviors from 2006 to 2009

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Cyberbullying Research Summary: Trends in Adolescent Social Networking.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2009). Cyberbullying Research Summary: Emotional and Psychological Consequences.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2009). Cyberbullying Research Summary: Victimization of Adolescent Girls.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2009). Cyberbullying Fact Sheet: A Brief Review of Relevant Legal and Policy Issues.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2009). Cyberbullying Research Summary: Personal Information of Adolescents on the Internet.

Other Publications (click on any title to see details)

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2011). Cyberbullying: Identification, Prevention, and Response. Laminated Reference Guide. Port Chester, New York: National Professional Resources, Inc.

Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2010). A Student’s Guide to Personal Publishing. Minneapolis, MN: Jostens.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2011). Overview of Cyberbullying. White Paper for the White House Conference on Bullying Prevention. Washington, DC.

   
BOOKS

School Climate sexting cyber bullying

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School Climate 2.0:
Preventing Cyberbullying and Sexting One Classroom at a Time

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

“School Climate 2.0” seeks to explain and promote the importance of creating and maintaining a positive school climate in unique ways to reduce teen technology misuse.  Available books on this topic simply describe the nature of cyberbullying or sexting (e.g., what it looks like, how much of it is occurring and among whom) and offer an assortment of random suggestions to deal with the problem.  We seek to meaningfully build on that knowledgebase by offering numerous informed, creative, and practical strategies within a novel framework to improve the existing school environment and consequently foster increased positive behavior, both online and offline.  The book is supported by over 10 years of research among thousands of teens, teachers, parents and others who work with youth.    

Within “School Climate 2.0”, we concisely summarize the scope, prevalence, and nature of cyberbullying and sexting, and encourage educators to marshal the powers of peer influence and school culture to curtail these behaviors.  The majority of the book introduces and details specific, pragmatic school climate initiatives that educators can implement in their schools. These include social norming, youth grassroots campaigns, peer mentoring, data-driven action plans, and multi-pronged policy and programming approaches by adults. Our overall goal is to enlighten educators, parents, and teens about the tremendous value inherent in a positive school climate, not only to enhance student achievement, success, productivity, and connectedness, but because a healthy, respectful climate at school will produce students who are safe, smart, honest, and responsible while using technology.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2012). School Climate 2.0: Preventing Cyberbullying and Sexting One Classroom at a Time. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

   

Cyberbullying Prevention and Response: Expert Perspectives

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Cyberbullying Prevention and Response:
Expert Perspectives

By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja

Just as the previous generation was raised in front of televisions, adolescents at the turn of the 21st century are being raised in an internet-enabled world where blogs, social networking, and instant messaging are competing with face-to-face and telephone communication as the dominant means through which personal interaction takes place. Unfortunately, a small but growing proportion of our youth are being exposed online to interpersonal violence, aggression, and harassment via cyberbullying. The mission of this book is to explore the many critical issues surrounding this new phenomenon. Key features include the following.

Comprehensive – The book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date look at the major issues that teachers, school administrators, counsellors, social workers, and parents need to be aware of with respect to cyberbullying identification, prevention, and response.

Practical – While the information is informed by research, it is written in an accessible way that all adults will be able to understand and apply.

Expertise – Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja are Co-Directors of the Cyberbullying Research Center (www.cyberbullying.us). Chapter authors represent a carefully selected group of contributors who have demonstrated both topical expertise and an ability to write about the topic in clear, easily accessible language.

This book is appropriate for teachers, administrators, parents and others seeking research-based guidance on how to deal with the rising tide of cyberbullying issues. It is also appropriate for a variety of college level courses dealing with school violence and educational administration.

Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S.  (2012).  Cyberbullying Prevention and Response: Expert Perspectives.  New York: Routledge.

   

Bullying Beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying

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Bullying Beyond the Schoolyard:
Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

Focusing on how technology can facilitate or magnify traditional forms of peer harassment, "Bullying beyond the Schoolyard" paints a vivid picture of online aggression among adolescents by recounting the stories of victims, summarizing current research, and reviewing recent legal rulings. This groundbreaking book also provides proactive prevention and intervention strategies to equip parents, educators, counselors, law enforcement, and other youth-serving adults with the tools necessary to protect students from the negative effects of cyberbullying. Finally, it includes many special features, such as questions for reflection after each chapter, numerous illustrations, and reproducible resource documents to further educate those involved. According to InsideTheSchool.com: “Readers will walk away with enough background knowledge and practical advice to be the cyberbullying authority in their school.”

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2009). Bullying Beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

   

 

 

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Journal of Youth and Adolescence

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Social Influences on Cyberbullying Behaviors Among Middle and High School Students
By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

Cyberbullying is a problem affecting a meaningful proportion of youth as they embrace online communication and interaction. Research has identified a number of real-world negative ramifications for both the targets and those who bully. During adolescence, many behavioral choices are influenced and conditioned by the role of major socializing agents, including friends, family, and adults at school. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which peers, parents, and educators influence the cyberbullying behaviors of adolescents. To explore this question, data were analyzed from a random sample of approximately 4,400 sixth through twelfth grade students (49 % female; 63 % nonwhite) from thirty-three schools in one large school district in the southern United States. Results indicate that cyberbullying offending is associated with perceptions of peers behaving similarly, and the likelihood of sanction by adults. Specifically, youth who believed that many of their friends were involved in bullying and cyberbullying were themselves more likely to report cyberbullying behaviors. At the same time, respondents who believed that the adults in their life would punish them for cyberbullying were less likely to participate. Implications for schools and families are discussed with the goal of mitigating this behavior and its negative outcomes among adolescent populations.

Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2013). Social Influences on Cyberbullying Behaviors Among Middle and High School Students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence.

   

Youth and Society

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Traditional and Nontraditional Bullying among Youth:
A Test of General Strain Theory
By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja

Bullying at school is a common problem facing youth, school officials, and parents. A significant body of research has detailed the serious consequences associated with bullying victimization. Recently, however, a new permutation of bullying has arisen and arguably become even more problematic. Cyberbullying, as it has been termed, occurs when youth use technology as a tool or instrument to bully their peers - via email, in chat rooms, on social networking Web sites, and with text messaging through their computer or cell phone. The current study seeks to shed light on the potential causes of both variants of adolescent aggression by employing the arguments of Agnew’s (1992) General Strain Theory. Results suggest that those who experience strain are more likely to participate in both traditional and nontraditional forms of bullying. Implications of these findings and suggestions for further research in this growing area of study are also discussed.

Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2011). Traditional and nontraditional bullying among youth: A test of general strain theory. Youth and Society, 43(2) 727-751.

   

Preventing School Failure

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Cyberbullying: A review of the legal issues facing educators
By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

School districts are often given the challenging task of addressing problematic online behaviors committed by students while simultaneously protecting themselves from civil liability by not overstepping their authority.  This is difficult because the law concerning these behaviors is ambiguous and continuously evolving, and little consensus has yet been reached regarding key constitutional and civil rights issues.  The current work seeks to shed light on some of the critical legal questions faced by school administrators by first reviewing several legislative actions and court cases involving problematic offline and online student speech or expressions.  Next, we analyze the dispositions and extract principles that can inform and direct prevention and response efforts by educators.  We conclude by underscoring the challenges of balancing legal guidance with humane consideration of the context and consequences of cyberbullying victimization among youth.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2011). Cyberbullying: A review of the legal issues facing educators. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 55(2), 71-78.

   

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Cyberbullying and Self-Esteem
By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja

This article examines the relationship between middle school students’ experience with cyberbullying and their level of self-esteem. Previous research on traditional bullying among adolescents has found a relatively consistent link between victimization and lower self-esteem, while finding an inconsistent relationship between offending and lower self-esteem. It is therefore important to extend this body of research by determining how bullying augmented through the use of technology (such as computers and cell phones) is correlated with lower self-esteem among adolescents. The present work, based on data collected from approximately 2,000 middle-school students in one of the largest school districts in the United States, found that students who experienced cyberbullying, both as a victim and an offender, had significantly lower self-esteem than those who had little or no experience with cyberbullying.

Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2010). Cyberbullying and Self-Esteem. Journal of School Health, 80(12), 614-621.

Archives of Suicide Research

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Bullying, Cyberbullying, and Suicide
By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

Empirical studies and some high-profile anecdotal cases have demonstrated a link between suicidal ideation and experiences with bullying victimization or offending. The current study examines the extent to which a nontraditional form of peer aggression – cyberbullying – is also related to suicidal ideation among adolescents. Among a random sample of approximately 2,000 middle-schoolers, youth who experienced traditional bullying or cyberbullying, as either an offender or a victim, had more suicidal thoughts and were more likely to attempt suicide than those who had not experienced such forms of peer aggression. Also, victimization was more strongly related to suicidal thoughts and behaviors than offending. The findings provide further evidence that adolescent peer aggression must be taken seriously both at school and at home, and suggest that a suicide prevention and intervention component is essential within comprehensive bullying response programs implemented in schools.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide. Archives of Suicide Research, 14(3), 206-221.

   

New Media and Society

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Changes in adolescent online social networking behaviors from 2006 to 2009
By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja

As online social networking has become an immersive and pervasive phenomenon, traditional considerations and expectations of personal privacy have been drastically altered. This paradigmatic change has led to adolescents possibly making themselves vulnerable to embarrassment, censure, damage to one’s name or reputation, or even victimization by others because of unwise postings or revelations online. The current study sought to determine the extent to which adolescent information disclosure on MySpace.com has changed between 2006 and 2009. We found significant changes in the nature of personal content made publicly available across the two time points and a trend in which teens are being increasingly more selective and discrete when it comes to what they share and with whom they share it.

Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2010). Changes in adolescent online social networking behaviors from 2006 to 2009. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1818-1821.

   

New Media and Society

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Trends in Online Social Networking:
Adolescent Use of MySpace over Time

By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja

MySpace has received a significant amount of negative attention from the media and many concerned adults, who point to several isolated incidents where predators have contacted, become involved with and even assaulted adolescents whom they met through the popular social networking web site. Furthermore, concerned parents have expressed discontent with the amount and type of personal and private information youth seem to reveal on their profile pages. In 2006, the authors performed an extensive content analysis of approximately 2423 randomly sampled adolescent MySpace profiles, and found that the vast majority of youth were making responsible choices with the information they shared online. In this follow-up study, the authors revisited the profiles one year later to examine the extent to which the content had changed. Though exceptions occur, youth are increasingly exercising discretion in posting personal information on MySpace and more youth are limiting access to their profile. Moreover, a significant number of youth appear to be abandoning their profiles or MySpace altogether.

Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2010). Trends in online social networking: Adolescent use of MySpace over time. New Media and Society. 12(2) 197–216.

   

Deviant Behavior

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Cyberbullying: An Exploratory Analysis of Factors Related to Offending and Victimization
By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

Victimization on the Internet through what has been termed cyberbullying has attracted increased attention from scholars and practitioners. Defined as “willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text” (Patchin & Hinduja, 2006), this negative experience not only undermines a youth’s freedom to use and explore valuable online resources, but also can result in severe functional and physical ramifications. Research involving the specific phenomenon - as well as Internet harassment in general - is still in its infancy, and the current work seeks to serve as a foundational piece in understanding its substance and salience. Online survey data from 1,378 adolescent Internet-users are analyzed for the purposes of identifying characteristics of typical cyberbullying victims and offenders. While gender and race did not significantly differentiate respondent victimization or offending, computer proficiency and time spent online were positively related to both cyberbullying victimization and offending. Additionally, cyberbullying experiences were also linked to respondents who reported school problems (including traditional bullying), assaultive behavior, and substance use. Implications for addressing this novel form of youthful deviance are discussed.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2008). Cyberbullying: An exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization. Deviant Behavior, 29(2), 1-29

   

Journal of Adolescence

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Personal Information of Adolescents on the Internet: A Quantitative Content Analysis of MySpace
By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

Many youth have recently embraced online social networking sites such as MySpace (myspace.com) to meet their social and relational needs. While manifold benefits stem from participating in such web-based environments, the popular media has been quick to demonize MySpace even though an exponentially small proportion of its users have been victimized due to irresponsible or naïve usage of the technology it affords. Major concerns revolve around the possibility of sexual predators and pedophiles finding and then assaulting adolescents who carelessly or unwittingly reveal identifiable information on their personal profile pages. The current study sought to empirically ascertain the type of information youth are publicly posting through an extensive content analysis of randomly sampled MySpace profile pages. Among other findings, 8.8% revealed their full name, 57% included a picture, 27.8% listed their school, and 0.3% provided their telephone number. When considered in its proper context, these results indicate that the problem of personal information disclosure on MySpace may not be as widespread as many assume, and that the overwhelming majority of adolescents are responsibly using the web site. Implications for Internet safety among adolescents and future research regarding adolescent Internet use are discussed.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2008). Personal information of adolescents on the Internet: A quantitative content analysis of MySpace. Journal of Adolescence, 31(1), 125-146.

   

Journal of School Violence

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Offline Consequences of Online Victimization:
School Violence and Delinquency

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

As increasing numbers of youth embrace computer-mediated communication to meet academic and social needs, interpersonal violence directly and indirectly related to the Internet is occurring more often. Cyberbullying in particular has shot to the forefront of agendas in schools and communities due to the emotional, psychological, and even physical harm to which victims can be subjected. While previous studies have focused on describing its frequency in an exploratory capacity, the current work seeks to utilize general strain theory to identify the emotional and behavioral effects of cyberbullying victimization. Data collected online from a sample of adolescent Internet-users indicate that cyberbullying is a potent form of strain that may be related to involvement in school problems and delinquent behavior offline. Implications of these findings and suggestions for policy are discussed.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2007). Offline consequences of online victimization: School violence and delinquency. Journal of School Violence, 6(3), 89-112

   

Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice

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Bullies Move beyond the Schoolyard:
A Preliminary Look at Cyberbullying

By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja

Bullying in a school setting is an important social concern that has received increased scholarly attention in recent years. Specifically, its causes and effects have been under investigation by a number of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. A new permutation of bullying, however, has recently arisen and become common: tech-savvy students are turning to cyberspace to harass their peers. Whereas youth who are bullied at school can extricate themselves from unpleasant situations when they go home for the day, a child is potentially vulnerable to mistreatement through electronic means around the clock. Furthermore, the negative psychological, emotional, and social consequences can leave scars that persist for years, if not for a lifetime. This exploratory paper will discuss the nature of bullying and its transmutation to the electronic world, as well as the negative repercussions that can befall both its victims and instigators. Additionally, findings are reported from a pilot study designed to empirically assess the nature and extent of online bullying. The overall goal of the current work is to illuminate this novel form of deviance stemming from the intersection of communications and computers, and to provide a foundational backdrop upon which future empirical research can be conducted.

Patchin, J. W. and Hinduja, S. (2006). Bullies move beyond the schoolyard: A preliminary look at cyberbullying. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 4(2), 148-169

 

BOOK CHAPTERS

Female Victims of Crime

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Cyberbullying and Online Harassment:
Reconceptualizing the Victimization of Adolescent Girls

By Amanda Burgess-Proctor, Justin W. Patchin, and Sameer Hinduja

Growing public awareness of electronic bullying and harassment among adolescents suggests the need to empirically investigate this increasingly common and problematic behavior. Although studies of cyberbullying and online harassment among young people are nascent, preliminary findings suggest that victimization can undermine the freedom of youth to use and explore valuable online resources, and may have negative emotional and physical consequences as well. This study presents both quantitative and qualitative data from an online survey of approximately 3,000 Internet-using adolescent girls to learn more about their experiences as victims of cyberbullying and online harassment. Though the results are exploratory and largely descriptive, this study helps broaden our understanding of the victimization experiences of adolescent girls in cyberspace.

Burgess-Proctor, A., Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2009). Cyberbullying and online harassment: Reconceptualizing the victimization of adolescent girls (p. 162-176). In V. Garcia and J. Clifford (Eds.). Female Crime Victims: Reality Reconsidered. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

 

RESEARCH SUMMARIES AND FACT SHEETS
   

Cyberbullying Fact Sheet

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Cyberbullying Fact Sheet:
Identification, Prevention, and Response

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

This document is a five-page summary - filled with as much useful information as possible - to equip educators and parents to spot cyberbullying, respond to it appropriately and meaningfully, and to prevent its future occurrence among the children and teenagers they care for. If you only have time to read one fact sheet from the Cyberbullying Research Center to get up-to-speed about the problem and what you can do, read this one.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2010). Cyberbullying fact sheet:
Identification, Prevention, and Response. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved [insert date], from http://www.cyberbullying.us/Cyberbullying_Identification_Prevention_Response_Fact_Sheet.pdf

   

Journal of Youth and Adolescence

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Cyberbullying Research Summary:
The Influence of Parents, Educators, and Peers

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

This fact sheet examines influence of peers, parents, and educators on cyberbullying behaviors of adolescents. Specifically, youth who believed that many of their friends were involved in bullying and cyberbullying were themselves more likely to report cyberbullying behaviors. At the same time, respondents who believed that the adults in their life would punish them for cyberbullying were less likely to participate. We summarize our research and then discuss implications for schools and families to reduce the problem in frequency and scope.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2013). Cyberbullying Research Summary:
The Influence of Parent, Educators, and Peers. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved [insert date], from http://www.cyberbullying.us/Social_Influences_on_Cyberbullying.pdf

   

Cyberbullying Fact Sheet

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Cyberbullying Fact Sheet:
Cyberbullying and Sexual Orientation

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

Bullying based on sexual orientation or gender identity/expression has made headlines across the United States, and has been identified as a priority area for focus and attention by our federal government. This fact sheet examines data that specifically clarifies how bullying and cyberbullying are tied to sexual orientation, details civil rights implications for students, and explores a number of preventive strategies that can be implemented to safeguard sexual minority youth.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2011). Cyberbullying fact sheet:
Cyberbullying and Sexual Orientation. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved [insert date], from http://www.cyberbullying.us/cyberbullying_sexual_orientation_fact_sheet.pdf

   

Cyberbullying Fact Sheet

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Cyberbullying Fact Sheet:
Electronic Dating Violence

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

Electronic dating violence is “emotional or psychological harm in a romantic relationship perpetrated through the use of computers, cell phones, or other electronic devices.” Research has also shown that teenagers are at a higher risk than adults when it comes to abuse by intimates. Since the vast, vast majority of teens have embraced the use of computers and cell phones, we believe it is important to consider how this might be occurring via such devices. We explore this through research and discuss implications for youth and the adults that care for them in this fact sheet.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2011). Cyberbullying fact sheet:
Electronic Dating Violence. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved [insert date], from http://www.cyberbullying.us/electronic_dating_violence_fact_sheet.pdf

   

Online Bullying and Self Esteem

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Cyberbullying Research Summary:
Cyberbullying and Self-Esteem

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

This Research Summary explores the relationship between cyberbullying and self-esteem among teens. Results suggest that students who experienced cyberbullying, both as a victim and an offender, had significantly lower self-esteem than those who had little or no experience with cyberbullying.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2010). Cyberbullying research summary:
Cyberbullying and Self-Esteem. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved [insert date], from http://www.cyberbullying.us/cyberbullying_and_self_esteem_research_fact_sheet.pdf

   

Cyber bullying and strain, anger, frustration, sadness

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Cyberbullying Research Summary:
Cyberbullying and Strain

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

General Strain Theory argues that individuals who experience strain, and as a result of that strain feel angry or frustrated, are more at risk to engage in criminal or deviant behavior. Results indicated that youth who experienced strain or anger and frustration were more likely to bully others than those who had not experienced strain or anger/frustration. Similarly, youth who reported strain or anger/frustration were more likely to participate in cyberbullying.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2010). Cyberbullying research summary:
Cyberbullying and strain. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved [insert date], from http://www.cyberbullying.us/cyberbullying_and_strain_research_fact_sheet.pdf

   

Cyberbullying and Suicide

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Cyberbullying Research Summary:
Cyberbullying and Suicide

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

This Research Summary explores the relationship between cyberbullying and suicidal ideation. Results suggest that victims of cyberbullying and those who cyberbully are at an elevated risk for suicidal thoughts and attempts.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2010). Cyberbullying research summary:
Cyberbullying and suicide. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved [insert date], from http://www.cyberbullying.us/cyberbullying_and_suicide_research_fact_sheet.pdf

   

How to Deal with Sexting Among Teenagers

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Sexting:
A Brief Guide for Educators and Parents

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

This Fact Sheet defines "sexting" as it occurs among adolescents, and summarizes the current state of research on the problem. It also details informal and formal responses - particularly from legal and political authorities - and describes what schools should do as it relates to policy and response efforts. Finally, it suggests some practical prevention strategies that educators can implement to reduce its occurrence and perceived acceptability among students.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2010). Sexting: A Brief Guide for Educators and Parents. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved [insert date], from http://www.cyberbullying.us/Sexting_Fact_Sheet.pdf

   

Emotional and Psychological Consequences of Cyberbullying

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Cyberbullying Research Summary:
Emotional and Psychological Consequences

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

This Research Summary specifies how adolescents are negatively affected by cyberbullying by highlighting how online aggression leads to adolescent strain and stress, which then can create developmental and functional concerns.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2009). Cyberbullying research summary:
Emotional and Psychological Consequences. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved [insert date], from http://www.cyberbullying.us/cyberbullying_emotional_consequences.pdf

   

Cyberbullying Victimization of Adolescent Girls

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Cyberbullying Research Summary:
Victimization of Adolescent Girls

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

This Research Summary highlights the specific cyberbullying experiences of teenaged girls through the content analysis of detailed responses received from victims.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2009). Cyberbullying research summary:
Victimization of Adolescent Girls. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved [insert date], from http://www.cyberbullying.us/cyberbullying_girls_victimization.pdf

   

Cyberbullying Legal Issues

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Cyberbullying Fact Sheet:
A Brief Review of Relevant Legal and Policy Issues

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

This Fact Sheet provides a summary of important court cases and pending legislation that can help school districts evaluate and improve their current cyberbullying policies.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2009). Cyberbullying fact sheet:
A Brief Review of Relevant Legal and Policy Issues. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved [insert date], from http://www.cyberbullying.us/cyberbullying_legal_issues.pdf

   

Changes in Teens Social Networking MySpace

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State Cyberbullying Laws:
A Brief Review of State Cyberbullying Laws and Policies

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

This Research Summary summarizes the current state of cyberbullying bills and laws across the United States. Last updated: July, 2012.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2012). State Cyberbullying Laws:
A Brief Review of State Cyberbullying Laws and Policies. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved [insert date], from http://www.cyberbullying.us/Bullying_and_Cyberbullying_Laws.pdf

   

Changes in Teens Social Networking MySpace

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Cyberbullying Research Summary:
Changes in Adolescent Online Social Networking Behaviors from 2006 to 2009

By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja

This Research Summary summarizes how youth are modifying their use of social networking sites as it relates to online privacy and the disclosure of personal information.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2010). Cyberbullying research summary:
Changes in Adolescent Online Social Networking Behaviors from 2006 to 2009. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved [insert date], from http://www.cyberbullying.us/changes_in_teens_online_social_networking_2006_2009.pdf

   

Trends in Adolescent Online Social Networking

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Cyberbullying Research Summary:
Trends in Adolescent Social Networking

By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja

This Research Summary summarizes the changes that are occurring related to youth use of MySpace across multiple years.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2010). Cyberbullying research summary:
Trends in Online Social Networking. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved [insert date], from http://www.cyberbullying.us/myspace_youth_research_over_time.pdf

   

Personal Information of Adolescents on the Internet

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Cyberbullying Research Summary:
Personal Information of Adolescents on the Internet

By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

This Research Summary summarizes our MySpace research concerning the extent to which adolescents post personal information on their profile pages.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. (2009). Cyberbullying research summary:
What you need to know about online aggression. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved [insert date], from http://www.cyberbullying.us/myspace_youth_research.pdf

 

OTHER PUBLICATIONS
   

Cyberbullying School Strategies

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Cyberbullying: Identification, Prevention, and Response
By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

One of greatest and fastest growing threats to our youth today is cyberbullying. With the explosion of technology and social networking sites on the Internet, bullying has moved from physical confrontation in the schoolyard to a more psychologically damaging experience. Cyberbullying is having a profound impact on students across the globe and educators are scrambling on know how to deal with it.

Threatening text messages, unauthorized dissemination of private videos, and Facebook and Formspring postings on social networking sites are just a few of the many ways students are using cell phones and computers to ridicule, humiliate, harass and intimidate one another.

Written by respected authorities and authors of Bullying Beyond the Schoolyard: Preventing and Responding to Cyberbullying, and Co-Directors of the Cyberbullying Research Center, this guide helps educators on the front lines be better equipped to implement strategies that prevent cyberbullying and, if/when it occurs, respond effectively.

Learn about:

  • the need to specifically address cyberbullying in school policies/procedures
  • the collection of data on cyberbullying through student surveys
  • ways to integrate education on cyberbullying into the classroom
  • ways to empower bystanders and targets of cyberbullying
  • the use of peer mentoring
  • developing creative responses to cyberbulling incidents
  • working with law enforcement, cell providers and social networking sites
  • and much, much more!

All staff members need to better understand how cyberbullying can negatively impact their classroom and school climate and work together to eliminate it in all its forms.

This is a tri-fold laminated guide.

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2011). Cyberbullying: Identification, Prevention, and Response. Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources, Inc.

   

Online Publishing

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A Student’s Guide to Personal Publishing
By Justin W. Patchin and Sameer Hinduja

This handout discusses issues that students should consider when creating offline or online content and then publishing it for others to see. It also provides guidelines that can inform how best to make and share ideas, opinions, and multi-media in a way that does not lead to negative repercussions.

Patchin, J. W. & Hinduja, S. (2010). A Student’s Guide to Personal Publishing. Cyberbullying Research Center. Retrieved [insert date], from http://www.cyberbullying.us/Students_Guide_to_Personal_Publishing.pdf

   

hinduja patchin white house bullying

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Overview of Cyberbullying
White Paper for the White House Conference on Bullying Prevention
By Sameer Hinduja and Justin W. Patchin

Hinduja, S. & Patchin, J. W. (2011). Overview of Cyberbullying. White Paper for the White House Conference on Bullying Prevention. Washington, DC.

   
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What They're Saying...
"Sameer's presentations to students, faculty, and parents were all well-received. Students felt they could relate well to Dr. Hinduja. He understood the significance of technology in their lives and was respectful of them. He was funny and charismatic and connected with the kids appropriately. Sameer was able to deliver his message in a way that was accessible to all. One student compared the presentation to a similar one at her previous school and said that Sameer's was so much better because he understands and relates to adolescents so well. Probably the greatest testimonial to the effectiveness of his message is that students and faculty related that they checked and changed their Facebook settings and culled their friends list as a result of the assembly. Parents were very thankful to receive information in a way that could open up communication channels with their children. Sameer does not use scare tactics but simply presents the challenges and opportunities of social networking in an authentic and accessible way." David Rost, Dean of Students, Concord Academy
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